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Chapter 7 – Nutrition
Summarize the basics of nutrition
Define macronutrients and micronutrients
Categorize and describe the body’s sources of energy
Analyze intake of nutrition and make appropriate changes
Nutrition: The science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease
Essential nutrients: Substances the body must get from foods because it cannot manufacture at all, or fast enough to meet needs.
Macronutrient: An essential nutrient required in relatively large amounts.
Micronutrient: An essential nutrient required in minute amounts.
Kilocalorie: A measure of energy content in food; 1 kilocalorie represents the amount of energy needed to raise 1 liter of water 1°C
Carbohydrates: The word carbohydrate literally means “hydrated carbon,” or carbon with water. Can be either simple or complex.
Fats: Lipids consist of fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols (cholesterol). Can be either Saturated or Unsaturated.
Proteins: Protein is another major macronutrient that, like carbohydrates, consists of small repeating units. But instead of sugars, proteins are made up of amino acids. Can be either complete or incomplete.
Soluble Fiber: Fiber that is found to lower cholesterol levels.
Insoluble Fiber: Fiber that binds to water and allows for soft fecal matter
Vitamins: Organic substances found in food that can either be fat or water soluble.
Minerals: Inorganic substances found in food or spices.