Chapter 2 – Fitness Principles
- Describe the origins of exercise
- Define physical activity and exercise
- Discuss principles of adaptation to stress
- Provide guidelines for creating a successful fitness program
- Identify safety concerns
- Physical activity – any activity that requires skeletal muscle and requires energy aimed at improving health.
- Exercise – a subset of physical activity that is planned and structured aimed at improving fitness.
- Health related components of fitness – types of activities dedicated to improving physical fitness categorized as cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition.
- Skills related components of fitness – types of activities dedicated to improving physical skills categorized as speed, agility, coordination, balance, power, and reaction time.
- Principles of adaptations to stress – guidelines related to managing the application of stress during physical activity/exercise.
- Overload Principle – a principle of adaptation to stress suggesting the amount of stress applied during exercise must exceed a threshold level to stimulate adaptation.
- Volume – the term used to describe “how much” stress is being applied by combining the duration and frequency of exercise.
- Progression principle – a principle relating to how much additional stress that can safely be introduced to gradually improve fitness without risking injury or overuse.
- Specificity – the principle of stress suggesting activities should be closely centered around the primary outcome goal, i.e. train the way you want to adapt.
- Reversibility – the principle that adaptations to stress can be lost over time if training is modified or stopped.
- Principle of rest and recovery – the concept that adaptation not only requires overload but also requires rest to avoid overstressing the body.
- Periodization – a method of organizing workouts into blocks or periods. These cycles consist of work/stress periods and rest periods.
- Overtraining syndrome – a condition of chronic stress from physical activity affecting the physical and psychological states of an individual or athlete.
- Detraining – the act of no longer training at all or decreasing the amount of training.