Chapter 8 – Weight Management
The 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) estimated that 1.8 percent of adults and 3.3 percent of children and adolescents in the United States are underweight. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “NCHS Health E-Stat. Prevalence of Underweight among Children and Adolescents: United States, 2003–2006.” Accessed October 8, 2011. .
Being underweight is linked to nutritional deficiencies, especially iron-deficiency anemia, and to other problems such as delayed wound healing, hormonal abnormalities, increased susceptibility to infection, and increased risk of some chronic diseases such as osteoporosis. In children, being underweight can stunt growth.
The most common underlying cause of being underweight in America is inadequate nutrition. Other causes are wasting diseases, such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, tuberculosis, and eating disorders. People with wasting diseases are encouraged to seek nutritional counseling, as a healthy diet greatly affects survival and improves responses to disease treatments. Eating disorders that result in underweight affect about eight million Americans (seven million women and one million men).
Anorexia nervosa, more often referred to as “anorexia,” is a psychiatric illness in which a person obsesses about their weight and about food that they eat. Anorexia results in extreme nutrient inadequacy and eventually to organ malfunction. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) reports that 0.9 percent of females and 0.3 percent of males will develop anorexia according to But it is an extreme example of how an unbalanced diet can affect health. Anorexia frequently manifests during adolescence and it has the highest rate of mortality of all mental illnesses. People with anorexia consume, on average, fewer than 1,000 kilocalories per day and exercise excessively. They are in a tremendous caloric imbalance. Moreover, some may participate in binge eating, self-induced vomiting, and purging with laxatives or enemas. The very first time a person starves him- or herself may trigger the onset of anorexia. The exact causes of anorexia are not completely known, but many things contribute to its development including economic status, as it is most prevalent in high-income families. It is a genetic disease and is often passed from one generation to the next. Pregnancy complications and abnormalities in the brain, endocrine system, and immune system may all contribute to the development of this illness.
The primary signs of anorexia are fear of being overweight, extreme dieting, an unusual perception of body image, and depression. The secondary signs and symptoms of anorexia are all related to the caloric and nutrient deficiencies of the unbalanced diet and include excessive weight loss, a multitude of skin abnormalities, diarrhea, cavities and tooth loss, osteoporosis, and liver, kidney, and heart failure. There is no physical test that can be used to diagnose anorexia and distinguish it from other mental illnesses. Therefore, a correct diagnosis involves eliminating other mental illnesses, hormonal imbalances, and nervous system abnormalities. Eliminating these other possibilities involves numerous blood tests, urine tests, and x-rays. Coexisting organ malfunction is also examined. Treatment of any mental illness involves not only the individual, but also family, friends, and a psychiatric counselor. Treating anorexia also involves a dietitian, who helps to provide dietary solutions that often have to be adjusted over time. The goals of treatment for anorexia are to restore a healthy body weight and significantly reduce the behaviors associated with causing the eating disorder. Relapse to an unbalanced diet is high.
Bulimia, like anorexia, is a psychiatric illness that can have severe health consequences. The NIMH reports that 0.5 percent of females and 0.1 percent of males will have bulimia at some point in their lifetime. Bulimia is characterized by episodes of eating large amounts of food followed by purging, which is accomplished by vomiting and with the use of laxatives and diuretics. Unlike people with anorexia, those with bulimia often have a normal weight, making the disorder more difficult to detect and diagnose. The disorder is characterized by signs similar to anorexia such as fear of being overweight, extreme dieting, and bouts of excessive exercise. Secondary signs and symptoms include gastric reflux, severe erosion of tooth enamel, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, lacerations in the mouth from vomiting, and peptic ulcers. Repeated damage to the esophagus puts people with bulimia at an increased risk for esophageal cancer. The disorder is also highly genetic, linked to depression and anxiety disorders, and most commonly occurs in adolescent girls and young women. Treatment often involves antidepressant medications and, like anorexia, has better results when both the family and the individual with the disorder participate in nutritional and psychiatric counseling.
Similar to those who experience anorexia and bulimia, people who have a binge-eating disorder have lost control over their eating. Binge-eating disorder is not currently diagnosed as a distinct psychiatric illness, although there is a proposal from the American Psychiatric Association to categorize it more specifically. People with binge-eating disorder will periodically overeat to the extreme, but their loss of control over eating is not followed by fasting, purging, or compulsive exercise. As a result, people with this disorder are often overweight or obese, and their chronic disease risks are those linked to having an abnormally high body weight such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and Type 2 diabetes. Additionally, they often experience guilt, shame, and depression. Binge-eating disorder is commonly associated with depression and anxiety disorders. According to the NIMH, binge-eating disorder is more prevalent than anorexia and bulimia, and affects 3.5 percent of females and 2.0 percent of males at some point during their lifetime. Treatment often involves antidepressant medication as well as nutritional and psychiatric counseling.