This section of Ch. 6 will cover the following topics:
- topic sentences
- supporting detail
- transitions and conclusions
- paragraph length
The basic building blocks of language are words. Words form sentences. Sentences combine to make paragraphs. And paragraphs can stand alone or be combined to become essays, research papers, reports, letters, and books.
This chapter covers the components of a paragraph, different types of paragraphs, and using paragraphs to build longer documents.
The Parts of a Paragraph
A paragraph is composed of a topic sentence, supporting information, and a concluding point or transition.
The main idea of the paragraph is stated in the topic sentence. A good topic sentence does the following:
- indicates what is in the rest of the paragraph
- contains both a topic and an opinion
- is clear and easy to follow
- does not include supporting details
- engages the reader by using interesting vocabulary
Development of the Alaska oil fields created many problems for already-endangered wildlife.
This sentence introduces the topic and the writer’s opinion. After reading this sentence, a reader might reasonably expect the writer to provide supporting details and facts: what the problems are and how they were created. The sentence is clear and the word choice is interesting.
Here is another example:
Major league baseball has a history of cheating.
Again, the topic and opinion are clear, the details are saved for later, and the word choice is powerful.
Now look at this example:
I think that people should not take their pets to work, even for special occasions, because it is disruptive and someone might get bitten by a dog or a rabbit.
Even though the topic and opinion are evident, there are too many details (under what conditions, types of pets, different consequences). The phrase “special occasions” is vague. Also, “I think that” is unnecessary.
Revised, that sentence might read like this:
People should not take their pets to work.
The most efficient place to put a topic sentence is at the beginning of the paragraph. In college and business writing, readers often lose patience if they are unable to quickly grasp what the writer is trying to say. Topic sentences make the writer’s basic point easy to locate and understand.
Create a topic sentence for each of the subjects below.
- social media
(Note: These topics are all too broad for a single paragraph or even a single essay, so first narrow the focus. For “animals,” you might write a topic sentence about why people should adopt shelter animals. For “movies,” you could state your opinion of Black Panther.)
Be sure your topic sentences meet all the criteria listed above for a good topic sentence.
The body of a paragraph contains supporting details to help explain, prove, or expand the topic sentence. For example, a paragraph on the topic of people continuing to work into their 70s might have a topic sentence like this:
Retirement is no longer guaranteed for many older Americans.
A supporting sentence could include some of the following:
- Fact: Many families now rely on older relatives for financial support.
- Reason: The increasing life expectancy for an average American means retirement may last decades.
- Statistic: More than 20 percent of adults over age 65 are currently working or looking for work in the United States.
- Quotation: “Retirement is not in my vocabulary,” claimed long-lived actor Betty White.
- Example: Last year, my grandpa took a job with Walmart.
A topic sentence guides the reader by signposting what the paragraph is about. All the rest of the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence. Can you spot the sentence in the following paragraph that does not relate to the topic sentence?
Health policy experts note that opposition to wearing a face mask during the COVID-19 pandemic is similar to opposition to the laws governing alcohol use. For example, some people believe drinking is an individual’s choice, not something the government should regulate. However, when an individual’s behavior impacts others–as when a drunk driver is involved in a fatal car accident–the dynamic changes. Seat belts are a good way to reduce the potential for physical injury in car accidents. Opposition to wearing a face mask during this pandemic is not simply an individual choice; it is a responsibility to others.
If you said the sentence that begins “Seat belts are” doesn’t belong, you are correct. It does not support the paragraph’s topic: opposition to regulations. If an idea isn’t clearly connected to the topic sentence, the writer should tie it in or take it out.
Choose one of the topic sentences you developed for Ex. 1.
Write the sentence. Underneath it, write three supporting details. At the end of each detail, identify whether it is a fact, reason, statistic, quote, or example.
Use this format:
Supporting detail # (type)
Supporting detail # (type)
Supporting detail # (type)
In a stand-alone paragraph, a strong conclusion draws together the ideas raised in the paragraph. A concluding sentence reminds readers of the main point without restating it in exactly the same words.
Concluding sentences can do any of the following:
- restate the main idea in a different way
- summarize the key points in the paragraph
- draw a conclusion based on the information in the paragraph
- make a prediction, suggestion, or recommendation about the information
For example, in the paragraph about wearing face masks, the concluding sentence repeats the idea about opposition to masks without using the exact words of the topic sentence. It also summarizes the key point: responsibility to others.
Using the topic sentence and outline you developed in Ex. 2, write a concluding sentence that restates or summarizes your main idea without using the same words.
Then, write a second, different concluding sentence that either draws a conclusion or makes a prediction, suggestion, or recommendation.
Which conclusion do you prefer? There is no correct answer to this question. Some sentences are better than others. Choose the one you think works best for your paragraph, and explain why.
Transitions are words or phrases that help the reader move from one idea to the next, whether within a paragraph or between paragraphs. For example:
I am going to fix breakfast. Later, I will do the laundry.
“Later” transitions us from the first task to the second one. “Later” shows a sequence of events and establishes a connection between the tasks.
Look at this paragraph:
There are numerous advantages to owning a hybrid car. For example, they get up to 35 percent more miles to the gallon than a fuel-efficient, gas-powered vehicle. Also, they produce very few emissions during low speed city driving. Because they do not require gas, hybrid cars reduce dependency on fossil fuels, which helps lower prices at the pump. Given the low costs and environmental benefits of owning a hybrid car, it is likely that many people will buy hybrids in the future.
Each of the underlined words is a transition.
In a series of paragraphs, such as the body of an essay, transitions usually replace concluding sentences. For example:
Attending a community college is one way to save on the cost of college. Most lower division prerequisites–such as freshmen comp and intro to psychology–can be completed at either a community college or a four-year college, but cost significantly less at a community college.
Another way to complete college on a budget is to apply for grants and scholarships. Although not everyone qualifies for these educational benefits, many students find that they do.
But perhaps the best way to save money on education is to…
Transitions organize the writer’s ideas and keep the reader on track. They make the writing flow more smoothly and connect ideas.
Beginning writers tend to rely on ordinary transitions, such as “first” and “in conclusion.” There are more interesting ways to tell a reader what you want them to know. Here are some examples:
|Purpose||Transition Words and Phrases|
|to show a sequence of events||eventually, finally, previously, next, then, later on|
|to show additional information||also, in addition to, for example, for instance|
|to show consequences||therefore, as a result, because, since|
|to show comparison or contrast||however, but, nevertheless, although|
These words have slightly different meanings so don’t just substitute one for another that might sound newer or better. Use your dictionary to be sure you are saying what you mean to say.
How long should a paragraph be? The answer is “long enough to explain your point but not too long.” A paragraph can be fairly short (two or three sentences) or, in a complex essay, a paragraph can be half a page. Most paragraphs contain three to six supporting sentences.
As long as the writer maintains a close focus on the topic and does not ramble, a long paragraph is acceptable in college-level writing. But often a long paragraph will not hold the reader’s interest. In such cases, divide a paragraph into two or more shorter paragraphs, adding a transitional word or phrase.
In a long piece of writing–an essay, a research paper, a book–paragraphs separate ideas into logical, manageable chunks. Effective writers begin a new paragraph for each new idea they introduce.
- Topic sentences express the main idea of the paragraph and the writer’s opinion. In most academic essays, the topic sentence appears at the beginning of a paragraph.
- Supporting sentences explain, prove, or enhance the topic sentence by offering facts, reasons, statistics, quotations, or examples.
- Concluding sentences wrap-up the points made in the paragraph.
- Transitional words and phrases show how ideas relate to one another and move the reader on to the next point.