This section of Ch. 3 will cover the following topics:
- understanding “parts of speech”
- a noun’s job
- common and proper nouns
- capitalization rules
There are two ways to be a correct writer:
- read a lot
If you were lucky enough to have a family that encouraged you to read books as a child, and you continued to read a lot over the years, chances are your writing is already correct. Why? Because your brain absorbed the structures and systems we call “standard English usage” as you read. You may not be able to recite the rules, but you are able to use them.
If that didn’t happen, then you probably struggle with writing to some extent. You didn’t see enough correct language to embed the rules in your unconscious mind. But it is never too late! The more you read good writing, the more you will automatically write correctly.
Why does correct grammar matter? Take a minute to read this essay: “I Won’t Hire People Who Use Poor Grammar. Here’s Why” by Karl Wiens. It was published in the Harvard Business Review (where big employers get their information) and is available at https://hbr.org/2012/07/i-wont-hire-people-who-use-poo.
Writers who want to write more correctly need to study grammar so they can consciously make correct choices when they write. The information in this chapter will get you closer to the kind of writing you want to be able to do.
The “8 Parts of Speech”
“Parts of speech” is the system we use to explain how words are used in a sentence–which word goes where, why, and in what form.
Even if you struggle with writing, your brain already has a pretty good grasp of how this system works. For example, you know there is something wrong with this sentence:
I love dog my.
If I asked you to explain the problem, I doubt you would say, “The pronoun ‘my’ is being used as an adjective here, to show who owns the dog, and it should be placed before the noun it modifies.” But you’ve heard enough correct examples that your brain automatically sees the problem.
Can you spot the more subtle errors in the following sentences?
- The two best things about the party was the music and the food. (Error: /verb agreement. The verb “was” does not agree with the subject “things.” It should be “were.”)
- Natalie found a sparkly girl’s bracelet on the sidewalk. (Error: . It’s not a sparkly girl, it’s a sparkly bracelet.)
- When John’s dog came back, he was so happy. (Error: unclear pronoun reference. Who was happy? The dog or John?)
Understanding how words work can help writers communicate more clearly and correctly. Start here:
“Part of speech” is what job a word is doing in a sentence.
There are eight parts of speech in English. In other words, there are eight possible jobs. Here is a list, with brief job descriptions:
- noun: names a person, place, thing, or idea
- pronoun: used in place of a noun to avoid repetition
- adjective: a noun or pronoun
- verb: shows action, links subjects with words that describe them, or helps other verbs do those things
- adverb: modifies verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs
- preposition: shows the position of something or someone in space and time
- conjunction: connects words, , or
- interjection: shows surprise or emotion
In this chapter, we will study each of the eight parts of speech one at a time and in depth.
This PowerPoint presentation is a visual review of the parts of speech. Click on the image below to open it and work through the slides.
What Is a Noun?
The simplest words in English are ; they are easy to understand and found everywhere. To understand how English is structured, start by understanding what nouns do and how to find them in sentences.
A noun is a word that names people, places, things, or ideas.
Remember that “part of speech” is what job a word is doing in a sentence. Naming is a noun’s job. All of the following words are nouns because they name someone or something:
rabbit, tangerine, paper clip, Mars, democracy, student, Alaska
Most nouns are things you can see (like a mouse or the sun), but nouns can also name ideas (like democracy or faith).
There are two types of nouns: proper and common. Proper nouns name specific people, places, things, or ideas. For example:
- people: Shakespeare, Jean
- places: Paris, Gresham, the South
- things: Kleenex, Geology 101, Oreos
- ideas: Christianity, Buddhism
Proper nouns can be more than one word, but they still name one thing. For example:
- people: Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Bill Gates, Billie Eilish
- places: New York City, Republic of Ireland
- things: House of Representatives, MacBook Pro
- ideas: Harlem Renaissance, the Green New Deal
The following types of words are usually proper nouns:
- deities, religions, religious followers, sacred books (Allah, Catholic, Protestants, the Torah)
- family relationship when used as a name (Mom, Grandpa Lenz)
- nationalities, languages, races, tribes (Italian, Japanese, African American, Apache)
- educational institutions, departments, specific courses (Mt. Hood Community College, Humanities Department, Writing 115)
- government departments, organizations, political parties (Army Corps of Engineers, Doctors Without Borders, Democratic Party)
- historical movements, periods, events, documents (Black Lives Matter, the Renaissance, March Madness, Declaration of Independence)
- trade names (Apple, Xerox, Newman’s Own)
- months, holidays, days of the week–but not seasons (July, Yom Kippur, Friday, but not winter)
- titles when used as part of a person’s name–but not when used alone (Governor Brown, but not the governor of Oregon)
- titles of books, movies, CDs (The Hunger Games, “Bohemian Rhapsody,” Back to Black)
Common nouns name general people, places, things, or ideas. For example:
- people: students, aunt, dog
- places: river, country, home
- things: aquarium, car, hamburger, rose
- ideas: democracy, love, happiness, religion, work
Common nouns, like proper nouns, can be more than one word, but they still name one thing. For example:
- people: homeless person, state representative
- places: high school, swimming pool
- things: printer cartridge, washing machine
- ideas: gay pride, public speaking
Nouns of more than one word are called compound nouns. The two words together have a meaning that is different from the two separate words. For example, a “state” is one thing, a “representative” is another thing, and a “state representative” has a third, slightly different meaning. Sometimes compound nouns are written as one word (“greenhouse”) or hyphenated (“mother-in-law”). Check a dictionary to be sure.
Sometimes words can be a proper noun in one sentence but a common noun in another. For example:
- My sister Fern prefers ferns to flowers. (“Fern” is a proper noun because it is a specific person’s name, but “ferns” is a common noun because it names a general type of plant.)
- My mother said she was tired, but Dad was ready to go. (“mother” is a common noun here because it names the relationship, but “Dad” is what we call him, so it’s a proper noun.)
- When Obama was President, he actually called the president of my garden club. (“President” is only capitalized when it refers to the President of the United States, not when it refers to someone like the “president of my garden club.”)
Cartoon videos are an easy way to review the information you studied. Click on the icon below to view a video about nouns:
Type the following sentences:
- Toby studies film at the University of New Mexico.
- I spend time in the garden because it is so peaceful.
- Blues guitar is my very favorite music.
- Rats! The noisiest dog on our block just had puppies.
- John lives in Oregon now, but he previously lived in California, Alaska, Texas, and Massachusetts.
Then identify which words in each sentence are nouns by highlighting them in yellow. Remember that a noun can be proper or common and also can sometimes be more than one word.
For example: The fox jumped over the sleeping German Shepard, then he ran silently away.
So “fox” is a common noun and one word, whereas “German Shepard” is a proper noun made up of two words.
Many words won’t have highlighting because there are other parts of speech besides nouns.
Using capitalization correctly sends the message that you care about the ideas you are conveying. Knowing what to capitalize is not difficult: there are only a few rules.
Why are rules of capitalization in a chapter about nouns? Because one of the main ways capital letters are used is to differentiate between proper and common nouns.
Proper nouns are always capitalized. Common nouns are not. The following table will give you a sense of the differences:
|common noun||Proper Noun|
|museum||The Art Institute of Chicago|
|book||Pride and Prejudice|
|war||the Spanish-American War|
|historical event||The Renaissance|
Besides proper nouns, there are several other capitalization rules:
- The pronoun “I” is always capitalized. For example: It’s time I settled down and found a job.
- The first word in every sentence is capitalized. For example: Peaches taste best when they are cold.
- The first word in a sentence-length quotation is capitalized. For example: The college president asked, “What can we do for our students?”
- The first, last, and main words in a title are capitalized. For example: I found a copy of Darwin’s book The Origin of Species at a yard sale.
That’s it. The challenge is not understanding when to capitalize. It’s remembering to do it.
Type the following sentences, correcting any capitalization errors.
- my best friend’s name is judy and i met her in alaska.
- Last term, I read a book called the thing with feathers by noah stryker.
- If the movie is that bad, i have to ask, “why spend your money?”
- uncle jack smoked cigars and drank too much, but He loved his wife.
- Mt. Hood community college is offering very few face-to-face classes now.
- Understanding parts of speech is the first step in understanding how writing works.
- A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea. Nouns are proper or common.
- Always capitalize the following:
- proper nouns
- the pronoun “I”
- the first word in every sentence
- the first word in a sentence-length quote
- the first, last, and main words in a title.
the system and structure of a language
words that show ownership
the main noun or pronoun which performs the action in a sentence
a phrase or clause that is awkwardly placed in a sentence so that it seems to refer to an unintended word
add information to
a groups of words that does not include the sentence subject or verb
a group of words that includes both a subject and a verb
the name of a person, place, thing, or idea