This section of Ch. 3 will cover the following topics:
- using conjunctions
- recognizing and avoiding interjections
We have studied six of the eight parts of speech. The two remaining are the easiest.
Conjunctions are words that connect. (Think what the word “junction” means: a place where things cross or connect.) Conjunctions connect two or more people, things, places, or ideas. They also can connect two or more parts of a sentence.
The most common conjunctions are “for,” “and,” “nor,” “but,” “or,” “yet,” and “so” (called “fanboys,” after the first letter of each word). We see them often. For example:
The small bird flew swiftly towards the tree, but it nearly collided with a crow. It swerved at the last minute and landed safely. Neither the crow nor the small bird was hurt, yet both seemed upset.
Other conjunctions, such as “because,” “since,” “after,” “as,” “when,” “while,” and “although,” can begin and connect them to the main part of the sentence. (More about clauses in Ch. 4.)
The library and its landscaping impress people when they first visit our campus. (“and” joins “library” with “landscaping.” Then “when” joins the main part of the sentence with the dependent clause at the end.)
Watch this video for a fun way to review conjunctions:
In your notebook, copy the following sentences. Then, write “conj” above any conjunctions. (It might help to identify the nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions first.)
- Netta has a cheerful attitude while her husband is always gloomy.
- I don’t mean to brag, but I am the best cook in my family.
- Lydia is thoughtful and kind.
- Italy experienced the worst heat wave in its history last year when I was visiting my family.
- Ms. Beckett is strange, yet she is also smart.
- Dorian’s drawing skills are good, although they are not as good as mine.
- My handwriting is not worse than yours nor is it better.
- Hilton’s soccer team lost last season so they will have to practice more next year.
- Jose writes letters by hand, and his grandparents love receiving them.
- I felt lucky because I got into the college of my choice.
Interjections convey a greeting or show surprise or other emotions.
Interjections are common in spoken English but rare in written English because they are considered very casual. Interjections are like an exclamation point or an emoticon (which also should be avoided in college and business writing). Notice that interjections are usually followed by an exclamation point!
Here is a list of common interjections, but there are hundreds more:
Watch this fun video to review interjections:
Find the interjections in the following sentences. Then, in your notebook, copy the sentence, replacing the interjections with words that express a similar meaning but which are considered appropriate for college writing.
- Yikes! I am on time for class.
- Bentley is–yippee!–going to summer camp.
- When I saw his new car, I was jealous. Sweet!
- Whoa, where are you going in that hat?
- Pounding my thumb rather than the nail was a big mistake. Ouch!
- Conjunctions are helpful connectors.
- Interjections show emotion, but should be avoided in college writing.
a group of words that contains a subject and a verb but is dependent on the rest of the sentence to finish the thought