Toulmin Analysis Questions

Toulmin Analysis Model – for reading and analyzing an argument

The Toulmin model can also be used when you read an argument essay so that you can better analyze the author’s writing. Here are questions you can ask as you are reading:

  • Claim: The author wants me to believe:
  • Support/subclaims: I should believe this because:
  • Warrants: Why is this claim important to the author? (assumptions and/or values the author holds):
  • Backing for Warrants: What evidence does the author give to remind me of warrants and make me want to accept them?
  • Rebuttal: Are other positions shown? Are they refuted or discussed?
  • Qualifier: Is there anything which suggests the claim might be limited (sometimes, probably, possibly, if)?


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Critical Thinking by Andrew Gurevich is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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